**A Note on Standard Deviation and Root Mean Square (RMS)**

Technical paper by R.E. Deakin and D.G. Kildea detailing the difference between standard deviation and RMS (6 pages)

St_dev.pdf

**Centroids**

Technical paper by R.E. Deakin, R.I. Grenfell and S.C. Bird on the definition and calculation of centroids including the determination of various centroids of Victoria.

MSIA_Centroid.pdf

**Chi-squared distribution and Confidence Intervals of the Variance
**These notes (8 pages) give an explanation of the chi-squared distribution and its use in estimating confidence intervals of the variance. Examples are provided and the equation of the distribution is developed.

Chi-squared distribution.pdf

**Horizontal Positional Accuracy from Directional Antenna**

Technical paper presented at Victorian Regional Survey Conference, Traralgon, 23-25 May, 2003 (18 pages).

Positional Accuracy 2.pdf

**HP35s Surveying Programs**

A suite of surveying computation programs for the Hewlett Packard (HP) 35s calculator that will be useful in the field and office. Some (Closure, Radiations, Joins, Offsets) have a heritage extending back to HP desktop-computer programs from the 1970’s written by Bodo Taube of Francis O’Halloran, Surveyors. And Bodo Taube’s programs were (and are) models of efficiency. Others are more recent. Each program has a set of User Instructions, with examples and relevant formula and HP35s Program Sheets listing the program steps (that you may key into your calculator), storage registers used and program notes.

HP35s Surveying Programs.pdf

**Newton-Raphson Iteration**

Notes and historical discussion of this important numerical method of solving equations (27 pages).

Newton-Raphson Iteration.pdf

**Surveyors, GPS and the World Speed Sailing Record**

Technical paper by R.E. Deakin, W.N. Cameron, D.M. Silcock and K. Zhang on the surveys required for an attempt on the World Speed Sailing Record (29 pages)

WorldSpeedSailing.pdf

**Student’s t-distribution and Confidence Intervals of the Mean
**These notes (10 pages) give an explanation of the t-distribution and its use in estimating confidence intervals. Examples are provided and the equation of the distribution is developed.

t distribution.pdf

**Total Increment Theorem**

Notes on the total increment theorem (total differentials) and their practical use in some surveying applications (9 pages).

Total Increment Theorem.pdf

**Traverse Analysis**

Technical paper on a method of assessing traverse quality using propagation of variances (11 pages)

TRAVERSE ANALYSIS(GEOM2091).pdf

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